Characterisation and Processing of Reinforced PA 6 with Halloysite Nanotubes (HNT) for Injection Molding

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FERNANDEZ CUELLO, Angel ;MUNIESA, Manuel ;GONZALEZ, Jaime .
Characterisation and Processing of Reinforced PA 6 with Halloysite Nanotubes (HNT) for Injection Molding. 
Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering, [S.l.], v. 59, n.3, p. 183-192, june 2018. 
ISSN 0039-2480.
Available at: <https://www.sv-jme.eu/article/characterisation-and-processing-of-reinforced-pa-6-with-halloysite-nanotubes-hnt-for-injection-molding/>. Date accessed: 09 dec. 2021. 
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5545/sv-jme.2012.417.
Fernandez Cuello, A., Muniesa, M., & Gonzalez, J.
(2013).
Characterisation and Processing of Reinforced PA 6 with Halloysite Nanotubes (HNT) for Injection Molding.
Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 59(3), 183-192.
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5545/sv-jme.2012.417
@article{sv-jmesv-jme.2012.417,
	author = {Angel  Fernandez Cuello and Manuel  Muniesa and Jaime  Gonzalez},
	title = {Characterisation and Processing of Reinforced PA 6 with Halloysite Nanotubes (HNT) for Injection Molding},
	journal = {Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering},
	volume = {59},
	number = {3},
	year = {2013},
	keywords = {nanocomposites; halloysite; nanotubes; injection molding; compounding},
	abstract = {The use of nano-scaled reinforcements enchances the mechanical performance of the resulting material and the addition of natural origin nanotubes improve the sustainability and environmental impact of the product. The present work describes the preparation, characterization and processing of nanocomposites based on thermoplastic Polyamide 6 and Halloysite nanotubes (HNT). The nanocomposites were prepared in several stages and the results ensure the final application at “industrial scale”. The first formulation was a high concentration of Halloysite nanotubes (up to 30% weight content) made with a twin screw extrusion compounder which was used as a masterbatch. Application materials were obtained reducing the masterbatch in raw PA 6 down to 3 or 6% of HNTs weight content. In this stage the influence of use or not an extruder-compounder was analyzed. Finally, a low cost preparation and sustainable development technique as injection moulding was applied to obtain test parts of all developed materials. Results were analyzed at a microscopic scale (TGA, FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM) and macroscopic scale (rheology, mechanical properties and flame resistance). TGA and FTIR results show that the content of HNTs was as accurate as expected. XRD results showed a greater interaction between the HNTs and the matrix if the extrusion-compounding process was used before injection moulding. SEM and TEM results showed a better dispersion of HNTs if extrusion was performed at high screw rotation speed. All analysis concluded the nanocomposites can be processed on standard equipment due to the resultant low viscosity. Also, low content of HNTs proved that mechanical properties are highly improved as flame resistance remains equivalent.},
	issn = {0039-2480},	pages = {183-192},	doi = {10.5545/sv-jme.2012.417},
	url = {https://www.sv-jme.eu/article/characterisation-and-processing-of-reinforced-pa-6-with-halloysite-nanotubes-hnt-for-injection-molding/}
}
Fernandez Cuello, A.,Muniesa, M.,Gonzalez, J.
2013 June 59. Characterisation and Processing of Reinforced PA 6 with Halloysite Nanotubes (HNT) for Injection Molding. Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering. [Online] 59:3
%A Fernandez Cuello, Angel 
%A Muniesa, Manuel 
%A Gonzalez, Jaime 
%D 2013
%T Characterisation and Processing of Reinforced PA 6 with Halloysite Nanotubes (HNT) for Injection Molding
%B 2013
%9 nanocomposites; halloysite; nanotubes; injection molding; compounding
%! Characterisation and Processing of Reinforced PA 6 with Halloysite Nanotubes (HNT) for Injection Molding
%K nanocomposites; halloysite; nanotubes; injection molding; compounding
%X The use of nano-scaled reinforcements enchances the mechanical performance of the resulting material and the addition of natural origin nanotubes improve the sustainability and environmental impact of the product. The present work describes the preparation, characterization and processing of nanocomposites based on thermoplastic Polyamide 6 and Halloysite nanotubes (HNT). The nanocomposites were prepared in several stages and the results ensure the final application at “industrial scale”. The first formulation was a high concentration of Halloysite nanotubes (up to 30% weight content) made with a twin screw extrusion compounder which was used as a masterbatch. Application materials were obtained reducing the masterbatch in raw PA 6 down to 3 or 6% of HNTs weight content. In this stage the influence of use or not an extruder-compounder was analyzed. Finally, a low cost preparation and sustainable development technique as injection moulding was applied to obtain test parts of all developed materials. Results were analyzed at a microscopic scale (TGA, FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM) and macroscopic scale (rheology, mechanical properties and flame resistance). TGA and FTIR results show that the content of HNTs was as accurate as expected. XRD results showed a greater interaction between the HNTs and the matrix if the extrusion-compounding process was used before injection moulding. SEM and TEM results showed a better dispersion of HNTs if extrusion was performed at high screw rotation speed. All analysis concluded the nanocomposites can be processed on standard equipment due to the resultant low viscosity. Also, low content of HNTs proved that mechanical properties are highly improved as flame resistance remains equivalent.
%U https://www.sv-jme.eu/article/characterisation-and-processing-of-reinforced-pa-6-with-halloysite-nanotubes-hnt-for-injection-molding/
%0 Journal Article
%R 10.5545/sv-jme.2012.417
%& 183
%P 10
%J Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering
%V 59
%N 3
%@ 0039-2480
%8 2018-06-28
%7 2018-06-28
Fernandez Cuello, Angel, Manuel  Muniesa, & Jaime  Gonzalez.
"Characterisation and Processing of Reinforced PA 6 with Halloysite Nanotubes (HNT) for Injection Molding." Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering [Online], 59.3 (2013): 183-192. Web.  09 Dec. 2021
TY  - JOUR
AU  - Fernandez Cuello, Angel 
AU  - Muniesa, Manuel 
AU  - Gonzalez, Jaime 
PY  - 2013
TI  - Characterisation and Processing of Reinforced PA 6 with Halloysite Nanotubes (HNT) for Injection Molding
JF  - Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering
DO  - 10.5545/sv-jme.2012.417
KW  - nanocomposites; halloysite; nanotubes; injection molding; compounding
N2  - The use of nano-scaled reinforcements enchances the mechanical performance of the resulting material and the addition of natural origin nanotubes improve the sustainability and environmental impact of the product. The present work describes the preparation, characterization and processing of nanocomposites based on thermoplastic Polyamide 6 and Halloysite nanotubes (HNT). The nanocomposites were prepared in several stages and the results ensure the final application at “industrial scale”. The first formulation was a high concentration of Halloysite nanotubes (up to 30% weight content) made with a twin screw extrusion compounder which was used as a masterbatch. Application materials were obtained reducing the masterbatch in raw PA 6 down to 3 or 6% of HNTs weight content. In this stage the influence of use or not an extruder-compounder was analyzed. Finally, a low cost preparation and sustainable development technique as injection moulding was applied to obtain test parts of all developed materials. Results were analyzed at a microscopic scale (TGA, FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM) and macroscopic scale (rheology, mechanical properties and flame resistance). TGA and FTIR results show that the content of HNTs was as accurate as expected. XRD results showed a greater interaction between the HNTs and the matrix if the extrusion-compounding process was used before injection moulding. SEM and TEM results showed a better dispersion of HNTs if extrusion was performed at high screw rotation speed. All analysis concluded the nanocomposites can be processed on standard equipment due to the resultant low viscosity. Also, low content of HNTs proved that mechanical properties are highly improved as flame resistance remains equivalent.
UR  - https://www.sv-jme.eu/article/characterisation-and-processing-of-reinforced-pa-6-with-halloysite-nanotubes-hnt-for-injection-molding/
@article{{sv-jme}{sv-jme.2012.417},
	author = {Fernandez Cuello, A., Muniesa, M., Gonzalez, J.},
	title = {Characterisation and Processing of Reinforced PA 6 with Halloysite Nanotubes (HNT) for Injection Molding},
	journal = {Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering},
	volume = {59},
	number = {3},
	year = {2013},
	doi = {10.5545/sv-jme.2012.417},
	url = {https://www.sv-jme.eu/article/characterisation-and-processing-of-reinforced-pa-6-with-halloysite-nanotubes-hnt-for-injection-molding/}
}
TY  - JOUR
AU  - Fernandez Cuello, Angel 
AU  - Muniesa, Manuel 
AU  - Gonzalez, Jaime 
PY  - 2018/06/28
TI  - Characterisation and Processing of Reinforced PA 6 with Halloysite Nanotubes (HNT) for Injection Molding
JF  - Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering; Vol 59, No 3 (2013): Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering
DO  - 10.5545/sv-jme.2012.417
KW  - nanocomposites, halloysite, nanotubes, injection molding, compounding
N2  - The use of nano-scaled reinforcements enchances the mechanical performance of the resulting material and the addition of natural origin nanotubes improve the sustainability and environmental impact of the product. The present work describes the preparation, characterization and processing of nanocomposites based on thermoplastic Polyamide 6 and Halloysite nanotubes (HNT). The nanocomposites were prepared in several stages and the results ensure the final application at “industrial scale”. The first formulation was a high concentration of Halloysite nanotubes (up to 30% weight content) made with a twin screw extrusion compounder which was used as a masterbatch. Application materials were obtained reducing the masterbatch in raw PA 6 down to 3 or 6% of HNTs weight content. In this stage the influence of use or not an extruder-compounder was analyzed. Finally, a low cost preparation and sustainable development technique as injection moulding was applied to obtain test parts of all developed materials. Results were analyzed at a microscopic scale (TGA, FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM) and macroscopic scale (rheology, mechanical properties and flame resistance). TGA and FTIR results show that the content of HNTs was as accurate as expected. XRD results showed a greater interaction between the HNTs and the matrix if the extrusion-compounding process was used before injection moulding. SEM and TEM results showed a better dispersion of HNTs if extrusion was performed at high screw rotation speed. All analysis concluded the nanocomposites can be processed on standard equipment due to the resultant low viscosity. Also, low content of HNTs proved that mechanical properties are highly improved as flame resistance remains equivalent.
UR  - https://www.sv-jme.eu/article/characterisation-and-processing-of-reinforced-pa-6-with-halloysite-nanotubes-hnt-for-injection-molding/
Fernandez Cuello, Angel, Muniesa, Manuel, AND Gonzalez, Jaime.
"Characterisation and Processing of Reinforced PA 6 with Halloysite Nanotubes (HNT) for Injection Molding" Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering [Online], Volume 59 Number 3 (28 June 2018)

Authors

Affiliations

  • University de Zaragoza, Mechanical Engineering Department / Fundación AITIIP, Parque Tecnológico Cogullada, Spain 1
  • University de Zaragoza, Mechanical Engineering Department, Spain 2
  • Fundación AITIIP, Parque Tecnológico Cogullada, Spain 3

Paper's information

Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 59(2013)3, 183-192

https://doi.org/10.5545/sv-jme.2012.417

The use of nano-scaled reinforcements enchances the mechanical performance of the resulting material and the addition of natural origin nanotubes improve the sustainability and environmental impact of the product. The present work describes the preparation, characterization and processing of nanocomposites based on thermoplastic Polyamide 6 and Halloysite nanotubes (HNT). The nanocomposites were prepared in several stages and the results ensure the final application at “industrial scale”. The first formulation was a high concentration of Halloysite nanotubes (up to 30% weight content) made with a twin screw extrusion compounder which was used as a masterbatch. Application materials were obtained reducing the masterbatch in raw PA 6 down to 3 or 6% of HNTs weight content. In this stage the influence of use or not an extruder-compounder was analyzed. Finally, a low cost preparation and sustainable development technique as injection moulding was applied to obtain test parts of all developed materials. Results were analyzed at a microscopic scale (TGA, FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM) and macroscopic scale (rheology, mechanical properties and flame resistance). TGA and FTIR results show that the content of HNTs was as accurate as expected. XRD results showed a greater interaction between the HNTs and the matrix if the extrusion-compounding process was used before injection moulding. SEM and TEM results showed a better dispersion of HNTs if extrusion was performed at high screw rotation speed. All analysis concluded the nanocomposites can be processed on standard equipment due to the resultant low viscosity. Also, low content of HNTs proved that mechanical properties are highly improved as flame resistance remains equivalent.

nanocomposites; halloysite; nanotubes; injection molding; compounding